Attention Deficit Disorder (ADHD/ADD) in Conventional Medicine Perspective

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Attention Deficit Disorder (ADHD/ADD) also known as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a chronic disease occurs in certain age and years of a children, defined as a condition with characteristics of co-existence of attentional problems and hyperactivity. It effects about 5% of the all children in the world with boys have 3-4 times higher risk than girl. Over one third of children with ADHD will have continued symptoms existed into their adult life.

ADHD/ADD in conventional medicine perspective
1. Diagnosis
Diagnosis depending to the observation of the symptoms of the children with ADHD and answering to questions about past and present problems, and a medical exam is also important to rule out other causes for symptoms. The diagnosis of children with development A is always a stressful and time consuming road for both parent and children, because each doctor in conventional medicine mostly specializes in one field and can not make any suggestion outside of his or her professional judgement. You may be recommended to see other specialists if one found to be necessary. Since ADHD is complex disease, it requires a team of doctor before it can be diagnosed correctly and many wrong diagnosis have been done, leading to overwhelming pressure and time wasting to the parent and their children. Fortunately, many cases of ADHD have been correctly diagnosed and are treated accordingly.
To avoid wasting your time, here is the basic list of doctors and specialists who have been required for all children with development disorder to be diagnosed correctly.
1. Development and behaviour pediatrician
2. Paediatric neurologist
3. Children psychiatrist
4. Children psychologist
5. Developmental/Behavioral Pediatricians
6. Occupational therapist
7. Neuropsychologists
8. Behavioral therapy
9. Social worker
Some children may require more or less specialists than the list above in their road to find a cure, but we believe the list is a basic team for fast and corrected diagnosis.

2. Treatments
Cognitive behavioral therapy and medication may be at least partially helpful in the treatment of children with ADHD or with ASD, if it is not accompanied with diet and nutrition as in Children with Autism, researchers said, according to the study "Effectiveness of nutritional interventions on the functioning of children with ADHD and/or ASD. An updated review of research evidence" by Martí LF., posted in PubMed(a)
2.1. Cognitive behavioral therapy
The aims of behaviour theory is to help the ADHD children to overcome the emotional, behavioural and cognitive dysfunction through a goal-oriented, systematic procedure. It is said that this types of treatment have proven to be successful in treating mood, anxiety, personality, eating, substance abuse, and psychotic disorders in some degrees.

2.2. Exercise
Research is demonstrating that acute exercise facilitated performance in the Stroop Test, particularly in the Stroop Color-Word condition. Additionally, children in the exercise group demonstrated improvement in specific WCST performances in Non-perseverative Errors and Categories Completed (10)

2.3. Parental Training
Parental Training in early alliance and change in alliance over time predicted improvements in several parenting behaviors and child outcomes, including peer sociometrics in a lab-based playgroup. These preliminary findings lend support to the importance of examining the parent-therapist alliance in parent-training groups for youth social and behavioral problems (11). Even though it is always difficult for parent to try them in the beginning, but be consistent. follow through on punishments and rewards. Keep rewards frequent and short-term, etc.

2.4. Occupational therapy
Occupational therapy is a type of program, helping to compromise physically, intellectually or emotionally to integrate coping skills into their lives in order to perform necessary tasks. but for children with ADHD, the main goal of occupational therapy is to integrate sensory perception through recognition and interpretation of sensory stimuli based chiefly on memory, therefore it helps the child to gain a more peaceful frame of mind and concentrate on certain tasks.

2.5. Social skill training
Social skill training plays an important role for many children with ADHD to learn social skills for improving relationships with peers for the child and formed part of the ADHD treatment.

2.6. Make Environment ADHD Friendly
Some researchers suggested that making environment friendly may be essential for children with ADHD such as reduce distractions and strategies for keeping attention for the ADHD children

2.7. Medication
Stimulants are used to treat and manage ADHD. All stimulants involved the increasing levels of dopamine, a neurotransmitter in the brain associated with pleasure, movement, and attention.
a. Methylphenidate , including Biphentin®, Concerta® or Ritalin®)
a. 1. Methylphenidate is a piperidine compounds used to treat ADHD by increasing the levels of dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain byreleasing medication in the body over a period of time to prvide a paradoxically calming and attention effect on individuals with ADHD. Some researchers have found the beneficial effects of methylphenidate for both boys and girls. Methylphenidate therefore would appear to be as useful a treatment for ADD girls as for ADD boys.(22)
a.2. Side Effects are not limit to
a.2.1. It can be addictive
a.2.2. the medication of can cause nervousness including dizziness, agitation, anxiety and irritability
a.2.3. It may also cause gastrointestinal disorders including stomach ache, nausea, decreased appetite, vomiting, etc.
a.2.4. Do not use the medication if you have high blood pressure or any form of heart disease
a.2.5. The medicine is easy to abuse and toxicity
As therapeutic use increases, the risk increases of unintentional overdoses, medication errors, and intentional overdoses caused by abuse, misuse, or suicide gestures and attempts. Side effects during therapy, which include nervousness, headache, insomnia, anorexia, and tachycardia, increase linearly with dose. Clinical manifestations of overdoses include agitation, hallucinations, psychosis, lethargy, seizures, tachycardia, dysrhythmias, hypertension, and hyperthermia(23)
a.2.6. Etc.

b. Dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine®, amphetamine mixed salts (Adderall XR®)
b.1. Dextroamphetamine used as part of a treatment program to control symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, is a central nervous system stimulants used by changing the amounts of certain natural substances in the brain in which involved the effect in wakefulness and focus as well as decreased fatigue and decreased appetite.
b.2. Side Effects are not limit to
b.2.1. Prolonged period of use may decrease the effectiveness of the medicine
b.2.2. Over doses or using can cause cause serious heart problems or sudden death.
b.2.3. The medicine can cause nervous tension, including restlessness, difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep, headache, uncontrollable shaking of a part of your body , etc.
b.2.4. Dextroamphetamine can also cause digestive
disorder, including diarrhea, constipation loss of appetite, etc.
b.2.5. abuse, misuse, and diversion
Although, evidence on abuse, misuse, and diversion was limited, if compare to the use of Methylphenidate. But misuse and diversion rates varied by age and were highest among college students, and rates of diversion were highest with amphetamine-based products but similar among methylphenidate products. Evidence of effects in important subgroups of patients with ADHD (e.g. comorbid anxiety) was not comparative.(24)

c. Lisdexamfetamine (Vyvanse®)
c.1. Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) is the medicine used in children with and without previous exposure to stimulant medication in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as a significantly less active form to dextroamphetamine. As LDX reduced the core symptoms of ADHD with more severe adverse events in stimulant-naïve than previous-exposure subjects. Future controlled studies with larger samples should address the impact of previous stimulant exposure on other ADHD treatments(25)
c.2. Side effects are not limit to
c.2.1. The medication can cause nervous tension, including mild irritability, nervousness, restlessness, dizziness, trouble sleeping, etc.
c.2.2. Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate can also cause digestive disorders, including, constipation, decreased appetite, diarrhea, dry mouth, nausea, stomach pain; vomiting, etc.
c.2.3. It may be subject to abuse cause as increased risk for impairment in driving behaviors.(26)
c.2.4. Etc.

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Kyle J. Norton has 1 articles online

I have been studying natural remedies for disease prevention for over 20 years and working as a financial consultant since 1990. Health Researcher and Article Writer. Master in Mathematics and BA in World Literature and Literary criticism

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Attention Deficit Disorder (ADHD/ADD) in Conventional Medicine Perspective

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This article was published on 2012/03/25